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The general meaning of the testification ‘no one is God except Allah’ (ashhadu alla ilaha illallah) is: “I declare with my tongue, and believe in my heart, that the One truly deserving of being worshipped is Allah only”

In other words, the meaning of the testification of faith is that no one deserves extreme humility except Allah. This extreme subjugation is the worship, which, if practiced to other than Allah, makes one a blasphemer, a non-believer. Worship is not just calling upon, asking another for help, or asking another for aid, as some people claimed. The meaning of the term worship (al-^ibadah) in the Arabic language is “the ultimate submission and subjugation of one to another,” as stated by the linguist and Hafidh Taqiyyud-Din as-Subkiyy.

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Next State the categories of the mental (intellectual) judgment.

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